Biomass Energy Sub Component


Biomass Energy Sub Component (BESC) has been working on biomass energy sector with the objective of improving livelihood of rural populations through promotion of affordable, efficient and appropriate biomass energy technologies in Nepal. BESC has been disseminating different types of Imrpoved Cooking Stoves (ICS) in all ecological zones of the country. This has significantly contributed towards reducing Indoor Air Pollution (IAP) thereby improving the health of women and children, reduction in firewood consumption and cooking time.


BESC aims to address issues related to policy formulation and implementation, lobbying for policy implementation through coordination mechanism among national istitutions and programmes and institutional capacity building of the sector through awareness raising and human resources development. The appropriate strategies and approaches of this component are aimed at developing policies and institutions, supporting energy provisions improvements in the rural areas that eventually increase access to efficient and environment-friendly rural energy solutions, which address social justice and environmental sustainablility.


National Key Issues

Biomass is the primary source of fuel of the country. The total national energy consumption data also reveals that the fuel-wood has large share among any other energy sources resulting 77.7% of the total energy consumption (WECS, 2010).


Majority of the country's population i.e., 83% (CBS 2011) lives in the rural areas and about two-third of the total households (about 3.47 million) in the country use firewood as usual source of fuel for cooking and additional 0.57 million households use dried cattle dung (Guitha).


National ICS database shows the record of only around 0.7 million of these rural households using improved cooking stoves for burning firewood. The huge numbers of the remaining household are still estimated to use traditional cooking stoves (TCS) of various types such as, three stone, tripod and non chimney mud stoves which are considered less efficient in combustion and thus consume more fuel wood, responsible for high level of indoor air pollution directly affecting the health of women and children who spend most of the time in kitchen. It is also considered to contribute in enhancing women's drudgery for collecting firewood, increase in deforestation and degradation of environment.


The BESC intends to address this issue by scaled up disseminating clean and energy efficient solid biomass technologies for household and institutional cooking and heating purpose as well as finding solution for efficient thermal application in the small and medium scale enterprises where solid biomass is used as primary source of energy.


The overall strategy of BESC is to promote biomass energy technologies through Private sector, NGOs, forest users groups, and other relevant organisations, based on best practices guidelines and support mechanisms. While the component aims to install 475,000 improved stoves, the overall strategy will be to focus on sector issues and enhancement of procedures and framework for support to biomass energy sector rather than on detailed project development and preparation, as the sector environment is expected to change dynamically over the next five-year period. Though many best practices of past interventions were replicated, many modifications were also made while designing 'Improvised Service Delivery Modality'.


The key strategies would be improvement in coordination with relevant players and sectors i.e. Health and sanitation, forest, environment, women, children and social welfare, local bodies (DDC/VDCs), cottage and small industries, micro finance institutions, local finance institutional, Nepal bureau of standards and metrology, National Academy of Science and technologies, Universities and business houses. In addition to the coordination extensive synergetic effect will be created within renewable energy technologies i.e. solar, micro/mini hydro, biogas, wind. All these efforts will direct towards extensive coverage of an area with quality and quantity expansion of the biomass energy technologies.


Major Objectives

  • To put in place a scaled-up implementation network for ICS is in place and tested and certified stoves with defined quality criteria are operational
  • To make new technologies such as enterprise scale wood gasifiers and bio-briquetting are ready and field tested

The first objective will result in options being implemented to reach the poorest of the poor, especially women and ethnic minorities at field level. Use of better options of biomass energy technologies will help in improvement in nutrition level, indoor air quality and health, and reduction in the workload of women and children. 


Under the deliberated second objective, the BESC intends to conduct pilot projects on the biomass gasifier based technologies for thermal application for process heating activities at micro, small and medium scale enterprises as well as electricity generation for community electrification and/or end use  application.


BESC have planned to promote these technologies through successful piloting at strategic locations for electrifying rural community where possibility of national grid extension is very minimal and installation of micro hydro and solar technologies are either technically or financially not viable.


The programme will also effectively address gender and poverty reduction issues through increased economic activities and employment opportunities bringing about better living conditions. A number of organisations will be actively engaged in providing biomass energy technology support services at local level, countrywide.


Major Activities

Click Here for Briquittee  ICS Pamphlet

Click Here for Gasifier ICS Pamphlet

Click Here for Metalic ICS Pamphlet

Click Here for MUD ICS Pamphlet

Click Here for Poster on ICS Information


Lists of Nepal Interim Benchmark for Solid Biomass Cook Stoves (NIBC, 2016)- Approved Biomass Cook Stoves (Tested by RETS) can be downloaded from