Improved Watermill (IWM) Programme

Improved Water Mills (IWM) programme is being implemented by Centre for Rural Technology, Nepal (CRT/N) with support of Government of Nepal (GoN) through Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC) and the Netherlands Government through Netherland Development Organisation (SNV Nepal). This programme is being executed under the Renewable Energy Sector Support (RESS) programme.


  • To improve the living condition of rural households especially of the traditional water millers and women and children users.
  • To improve the sustainability of the Improve Water Mill (IWM) sector as a whole through institutional and local capability development.

AEPC : Execution of IWM Programme
ESAP : Implementation of IWM Programme
CRT/N : Technical service provider (technical facilitation, capacity building, quality monitoring, recommendation for subsidy etc.)

Service providers

Service centre: Promotion of IWM, quality installation of IWM, after sales service
Ghatta Owners’ Association: advocacy on cumulative right of IWM owners
IWM kit manufacturer: Quality production of IWM kits

Achievement of IWM Programme (2004-2010)

  • Installation of 6,349 including 827 LS IWMs
  • Improved livelihood of 330,148 rural households
  • Reduced drudgery of more than 330,000 women by reduction of 2 hours per milling
  • Increased income of IWM owners by 25% in case of SS and 100% in case of LS IWM
  • More than 850 rural households are benefited from installation of 17 IWM electrification systems
  • Creation of additional employment for more than 1,000 people in IWM sector
  • Well established local service providers network: 16 IWM service centres, 15 GOAs and 17 IWM kit manufacturers